Annina is a social scientist with an MSc from the University La Sapienza, Rome. After an early career in applied social research, Annina worked for over thirty years in international development aid, with multilateral and bilateral origination, NGOs, and the UN - latterly with IFAD as the Senior Gender Adviser. Throughout her career she has done extensive work in the area results-based programming and the development on indicators and monitoring systems. IFAD’s work on gender was evaluated in 2010 has having this strongest results orientation among comparator organizations and the most systematic inclusion of gender markers and indicators throughout the project and programme cycle. After retirement from IFAD, Annina was involved in the development of system-wide guidelines for the Ministry of Agriculture of Laos for the collection of sex disaggregated data for agricultural planning. She was also involved in the initial development of the W+ standard, specifically its indicators and monitoring methdologty. In this context she also developed and field- tested in Nepal the W+ methodoogy for quantifying time-saving for women from the use of biogas.